development to achieve community desires. (page 2 of 2)
urban designers use regulating plans and typological codes to control
the urban form of their projects. Typological codes describe neighborhood
components such as buildings, streets and open space types. The regulating
plan or map shows where the components are placed. Unlike typical zoning
practices, typological codes allow the designer to specify the various
"types" of buildings, streets and open spaces that will be featured
in the plan. After the street network has been laid out, each parcel and
thoroughfare in the plan is assigned one of the selected types. Public
buildings such as churches, libraries and city halls are often not coded,
since these "object buildings" are meant to stand out as special
within the urban fabric.
While some building types lend themselves to certain usesfor example,
shopfront buildings work well for retail, and bungalows work well for
residentialother building types are quite flexible in their usea
townhouse, for example, can accommodate a wide spectrum of residential,
retail, workplace, and institutional uses. The objective is to create
a setting that accommodates diverse uses over time, but is highly specific
in terms of physical form. In this way citizens can regulate issues of
use and form separately.
The plan at right is keyed to a code that specifies the building and street
types in a proposed community. These images can be found in The New
Urbanism, Peter Katz, 1994, McGraw-Hill. Typological codes specify
the overall building "envelope" including key dimensions and
the siting of buildings in relation to nearby streets, sidewalks, alleys
and adjacent buildings.
In the interest of making the information as accessible as possible, typological
codes are presented in diagrammatic form. They are purposefully lean,
concentrating on those issues that most affect the basic layout and functionality
of neighborhoods. The approach is different from "guidelines"
which generally focus on details of architectural aesthetics, landscaping,
and material. These latter issues may be included in a separate architecture
and landscaping code.