Use Planning Strategies--
Urban Forestry is the planting and maintenance of trees
within a city or community. It is an important strategy for reducing both
carbon emissions and energy expenditures for urban heating and cooling.
An article in the August/September 1991 issue of Urban Forests magazine
reported that "as much as 15 times the amount of carbon can be prevented
from entering the atmosphere through the energy-conservation effects of
an urban tree as can be retained through carbon storage alone." Furthermore,
the studies cited in Urban Forests indicate that energy savings
from trees planted near homes and buildings range from 10 to 50 percent
for cooling and from 4 to 22 percent for heating.
Forests is the nation's oldest citizen based conservation
organization and a leader in the urban forestry movement. American
Forests sponsors several programs including Urban Ecological
Analysis, Global ReLeaf, and Cool Communities. The organization
also convenes National Urban Forest Conferences and maintains
the National Urban Forest Council, a national network of individual
active in the development of urban forests. CityGreen
5.0 software is available for download from the American
Forests website. This GIS application calculates dollar benefits
based on natural systems, including the economic value of tree
Heat Island Project of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
is an interdisciplinary team of researchers working together
to find, analyze and implement solutions to the summer warming
trends occurring in urban areas, the so-called "heat island"
effect. Part of the project examines, in cooperation with American
Forests Cool Communities program, the role of vegetation in
Day Foundation helps promote tree care and conservation
and educates people on tree issues. Sponsors the following programs:
Celebrate Arbor Day, Trees for America, Rain Forest Rescue,
Conservation Trees, Arbor Day Farm, Conferences for Knowledge
and Growth, Tree City USA.
of Trees is a nonprofit organization in Oregon whose
mission is to promote the planting, care, and protection of
urban trees. Another nonprofit group that helps plant
and care for urban trees is Friends
of the Urban Forest in San Francisco. Other community
groups that help promote urban forests for their quality-of-life
benefits are the Georgia Urban
Forest Council and the Virginia
Urban Forest Council.
The U.S. Department of Agriculture's Urban
National Forest Home Page provides a directory, articles
and research, maps and fact sheets, and other information on
the 14 National Forests within 50 miles of an urban area. Also,
the USDA Forest Service Southern Region maintains an Urban
Forestry South website, which offers information, speakers
and publications on urban trees and forests in Southern states,
while the USDA Forest Service Pacific Southwest Research Station
maintains a Center for
Urban Forest Research. The USDA Forest Service's Northeastern
Research Station maintains Effects
of Urban Forests and their Management on Human Health and Environmental
TreeLink is a site created to provide information, research, and networking
for people working in urban and community forestry.
New Jersey's Cool Cities Initiative is a tree planting campaign designed to address the urban heat island effect. The $5 million joint program of the Board of Public Utilities and the Department of Environmental Protection is planting 100,000 trees across the state.
Wildlife Habitat is a project of the National Wildlife
Federation that encourages the creation and maintenance of functional
wildlife habitat in backyards, schoolyards, at workplaces and
Urban Forest Ecosystems
Institute, based at California Polytechnic State University,
addresses the need for improved management of urban forests
in California. The website contains numerous online publications.
Where We Live is a companion website to "The Forest
Where We Live," the television series. The site includes
a timeline of urban forestry, benefits of trees, and classroom
to develop a public private partnership, through a collaborative
process, to address the loss of tree cover in the five-county
Southeastern Pennsylvania region. Launched by the governor on Arbor Day 2004, the $8 million partnership plans to plant more than 20,000 shade trees and 2,000 acres of forested riparian buffers.
Tree Foundation of Kern County, California, offers a website
with information on tree pruning, tree planting, the economics
of tree care, and careers working with urban trees.
Several cities have developed urban forest programs that train
citizen volunteers to help care for trees and educate the public
about the value of urban forests. One example is the Citizen
Forester Program in Washington, D.C.
The Society of Municipal Arborists produces the magazine City Trees, as well as conferences and a website that create networking and educational opportunities for urban tree professionals and students.
as Lungs: Americas Urban Forests Make Environmental
and Economic Sense, an article from E magazine, November/December
Cooling Our Communities: A Guidebook on Tree
Planting and Light Colored Surfacing, US Environmental Protection
A guidebook for urban forestry as an energy saving
strategy. Available from: Superintendent of Documents, P.O.
Box 371954, Pittsburgh, PA 15220-7954; Reference GPO, Document
Forestry: A Manual for the State Forestry Agencies in the Southern
Region is an educational tool that provides basic information
for State forestry agency employees and others who work with
communities on urban forestry. It can be used for self-guided
learning, finding specific information on a topic and developing
workshops and presentations. There are 16 units in the Manual
; 9 units appear online.
of Minnesota's Forestry Library offers a searchable
online index of publications relating to the history of urban
forestry; urban forest legislation; the benefits of urban forests,
selection and planting of trees; maintenance of the urban forest;
planning and management; and urban forestry programs.
Last updated: December 10, 2004
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