Key Planning Principles
Ecological Landscape Planning
Ecological Landscape Planning advocates the study of the
biophysical and sociocultural systems of a place to determine optimal land
use patterns. The approach strives for an understanding of the many and
complex relationships that influence communities within the context of
Center for Urban and
Regional Ecology, a joint project of a number of Georgia
universities, is an integrated multidisciplinary team committed
to research, education, and service endeavors that explore and
promote options for sustainable human health and prosperity
while improving air, water, land use, and biodiversity at the
scale of regional ecosystems in which cities are embedded.
Society for Ecological Restoration International is
a non-profit organization of
individuals and organizations actively engaged in ecologically-sensitive repair and management of ecosystems. The Society seeks to
promote ecological restoration as a means of sustaining the diversity of life on Earth and reestablishing an ecologically healthy relationship between nature and culture.
Ecology Institute, a non-profit organization with offices
at the Boston College Law School, promotes the health of urban
ecosystems through research, education, and advocacy. Their
Natural Cities Program is conducting an inventory of the urban
ecosystem surrounding Boston.
Research Laboratory, at the University of Washington,
is studying the impact of urban development patterns on ecological
conditions in the Greater Seattle Area, and how patterns of
urban development (urban form) alter ecological conditions (species
composition) through physical changes.
International Association of Landscape Ecology, United States Chapter, is an organization focusing on the intersection of related disciplines including conservation biology, ecology, geography, landscape architecture, and planning.
Cities: Urban Ecology and the Restoration of Urban Ecosystems,
a 2002 working paper from the Lincoln Institute of Land Policy.
Ecological Society of America offers its Issues in Ecology publications online in text format, including
Ecosystem Services: Benefits Supplied to Human Societies by Natural Ecosystems. Journal articles on the subject, such as "Ecological Principles and Guidelines for Managing the Use of Land," are also available. In addition, the ESA publication Ecological Principles for Managing Land Use is made available online by EPA.
with Nature, by Ian McHarg,
A seminal book introducing the foundation of the
ecological landscape planning method.
Design for Human Ecosystems: Landscape, Land
Use and Natural Resources, Van Nostrand Rheinhold Company,
Inc., 1986. ISBN 0-442-25943-3.
Describes the "principles, methods, and techniques
for shaping landscape, land use, and natural resources in ways
that can make human ecosystems function in the sustainable ways
of natural ecosystems."
Futures By Design: The Practice of Ecological
Landscape Planning, New Society Publishers, 1994. ISBN 0-86571-298-0
An anthology covering the history and theory of
ecological landscape planning.
Landscape Ecology Principles In Landscape
Architecture and Land-Use Planning, Island
Press , 1996, ISBN 1-55963-514-2.
A concise handbook that lists and illustrates
key principles in the ecological landscape planning and presents
specific examples of applications.
and Urban Planning: An International Journal of Landscape Ecology,
Landscape Planning, and Landscape Design, Elsevier,
A journal concerned with conceptual, scientific,
and design approaches to land use. Presents issues dealing with
ecological processes and interactions within urban areas, and
between these areas and the surrounding natural systems which
The Living Landscape: An Ecological Approach to Landscape Planning, McGraw-Hill Professional, 2000,
Last updated: November 29, 2004
This revised second edition covers techniques of ecologically sound landscape design.
Back to Top