The Central City Transportation Management Plan (CCTMP) is part of a continuous
planning process intended to promote economic vitality, livability and
environmental quality in Portland's central core. The plan is an effort
by the City and its partners to promote a sustainable future for Central
City residents, workers and visitors.
The CCTMP is the latest step in a process that began with the Downtown
Plan, which was first adopted in 1972, and continued with the 1988 Central
City Plan, the 1991 Portland Future Focus, 1993's Carbon Dioxide Reduction
Strategy, 1994's Prosperous Portland document, and the Sustainable City
Principles adopted in 1994. The CCTMP, while focusing on the Central City,
seeks to achieve city and region-wide benefits for a sustainable community.
Assuring Growth with Livability
The CCTMP and Prosperous Portland share the goals of creating and retaining
new jobs and housing units to attract residents and employees into the
Central City. These goals support a vision of a compact urban form that
limits urban sprawl and the loss of agricultural and forest land at the
fringe of the metropolitan area. Encouraging economic growth and housing
in the Central City will increase the use of alternative transportation
modes that result in less vehicle miles traveled by workers and residents.
Reduction in auto use will improve air quality by reducing emissions of
carbon monoxide and ozone air pollutants. Additionally, increasing the
use of different transportation modes will reduce renewable resource use,
diminishing the release of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere and reducing
contributions to the global warming effect. Finally, reliance on transportation
modes other than the auto will limit traffic congestion, a factor that
significantly reduces a region's livability.
The CCTMP establishes an overall policy framework to support growth in
the Central City while managing the parking and transportation system.
The actions described in the plan will minimize congestion, increase transit
use, walking and bicycling and improve air quality. They are intended
to work in tandem with commercial and residential development, to encourage
new jobs and residents and enhance the Central City's overall environment
To successfully address air quality problems requires a shift from localized
to regional strategies. A regional approach is critical in dealing with
emissions that contribute to increased ozone levels. In addition, carbon
monoxide, which was once seen as only a Downtown problem, is now appearing
in significant amounts throughout the region.
The goals of the CCTMP, to encourage development of jobs and housing in
the Central City, along with the implementation steps described in the
plan, are intended to help the region respond to growing air quality problems.
Increasing job and housing growth in areas of relative high density will
promote transit use and further transit development, helping to reduce
the region's overall level of vehicle miles travelled per capita.
The CCTMP creates a strategy for compliance with Federal Clean Air Act
air quality standards. The adopted plan has been forwarded to the Oregon
Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ) for review and acceptance as
part of the State Implementation Plan for Carbon Monoxide.
In 1990, City Council authorized the CCTMP to carry out the Central City
Plan's transportation policy and to replace the Downtown Parking and Circulation
Policy (DPCP). Therefore, the CCTMP includes both transportation policies
as well as potential actions for implementation. The CCTMP is incorporated
into the City's Comprehensive Plan Transportation Element.
Regulations to implement the CCTMP are adopted by ordinance and incorporated
into Title 33, Planning and Zoning. The CCTMP replaces the Downtown Parking
and Circulation Policy previously in effect and adds new policies and
regulations for the other Central City districts.
The CCTMP was developed in conjunction with Tri-Met, the Association for
Portland Progress (APP), the Portland Development Commission (PDC), Metro,
and the DEQ, and the plan incorporates policies on development, promotion
and expansion of transit service in the Central City, as well as parking
and demand management actions. The transit policies and related transit
actions are intended for incorporation by Tri-Met as part of their future
service development plan for the Central City.
The following paragraphs describe some of the most important planning
efforts that led to development of the CCTMP. The plans and policies are
described in chronological order based on the date they were first adopted.
Much of what Portlanders love most about downtown Portland today grew
out of the Downtown Plana strategy adopted in 1972 to revitalize
the central business district. In the early 1970's, the downtown violated
federal carbon monoxide air quality standards one of every three days.
The retail businesses were losing shoppers to new suburban malls. Government,
business, and citizens joined together to develop strategies to target
private and public investment.
The Downtown Plan was adopted by City Council in 1972 and updated in 1980
to address changes related to the scale and design of development. Three
key elements form the basis for the Downtown Plan : (1) pedestrian amenities;
(2) a mix of densities, activities, and land uses (especially retail and
housing); and (3) good access through the management of parking resources
and greater reliance on public transportation. The Plan sought the "creation
of a pleasurable human environment" to attract residents and business
investment to the Downtown.
The General Transportation Goal of the Downtown Plan is:
"To design a balanced transportation system which is supportive of
the other Downtown goals and which recognizes that the transportation
system should provide more efficient use of both right-of-way and vehicles.
This means reducing reliance on the automobile, increasing the number
of persons per car and increasing the number of persons moving through
concentrated areas on transit facilities."
Specific goals of the Plan are:
A. Promote a mass transit system that will carry 75% of the passenger
trips to and through the core and which provides a viable alternative
to the private vehicle, i.e., fast, economical, convenient, and comfortable.
B. Give maximum accommodation to walking in the core.
C. Promote use of bicycles as an alternative mode of transportation.
D. Maintain a circulation pattern which responds to the Downtown Plan.
E. Maintain a public parking policy.
F. More efficient use of transportation resources shall be encouraged
through the institution of Flex-Time.
The Downtown Plan contains guidelines for pedestrian circulation, vehicle
circulation, public transportation, parking, service and loading, and
an inter-city bus terminal. The plan's emphasis on transit; including
expanded bus service, Fareless Square, the creation of the Transit Mall,
and light rail; played a key role in revitalizing the Downtown.
Downtown Parking and Circulation Policy
The Downtown Parking and Circulation Policy (DPCP) implements the
Downtown Plans Transportation goals and guidelines. The DPCP was
first adopted in 1975 with major updates in 1980 and 1986 and amendments
in 1988, 1991, and 1992. Major components of the DPCP's policies include
the downtown parking lid, maximum parking ratios for new development,
and restrictions on surface parking lots.
The DPCP serves as the City's plan for ensuring compliance with the carbon
monoxide standards of the Federal Clean Air Act. This policy is currently
included in both the SIP for Carbon Monoxide and Ozone.
The 1986 revisions to the DPCP were an interim solution to changes that
had occurred since the previous update. With the adoption of the Central
City Plan in 1988, additional modifications were needed to address the
changing character of the Downtown and of the other districts of the Central
City. The most recent amendment to the DPCP added provisions to allow
parking to be developed for older and historic buildings.
The DPCP has, in large part, been responsible for the fact that Portland
has not violated federal standards in carbon monoxide since 1984. Not
coincidentally, Downtown Portland employment has grown from 70,000 jobs
in the early 1970's to more than 90,000 jobs today.
Central City Plan
In the mid-1980's, the City of Portland recognized that there was
more to "downtown" than the Downtown corethat surrounding
neighborhoods had equal potential for commercial, retail, and residential
vitality. The Central City Plan was a visionary approach for achieving
the goals for the eight districts comprising Portland's Central City area.
These districts are: Downtown, Lloyd-Coliseum, Central Eastside, North
Macadam, Goose Hollow, Northwest Triangle, North of Burnside, and Lower
Albina. (See Map 1: Districts Map )
City Council adopted the Central City Plan in March 1988. That plan anticipated
growth in the Central City which would include 50,000 jobs and 5,000 new
housing units by the year 2010. The Central City Plan is part of the City's
Comprehensive Plan, and it updates and incorporates the Downtown Plan.
The Downtown Plan remains in effect.
Transportation plays a major role in shaping the Central City and implementing
the Central City Plan. The major transportation concepts of the Plan are:
1. Continuing increases in transit service to handle growth including:
a. Light Rail Transit (LRT) corridors as spines for the location of higher
b. An expanded role for transit (LRT and vintage trolley) for shopping
and access to special events; and
c. Development of a specialized transit circulation system to serve all
the Central City districts.
2. Transit (vintage trolley and water taxi) as an element of increased
recreational use of the Central City.
3. Streets (and public rights-of-way) play a major role as public amenities
through use as pedestrianways, boulevards, locations for street trees,
and public art.
4. Planning and building new local street systems for the North Downtown
rail yard and North Macadam areas.
5. Managing parking as a resource to support continued economic growth,
improved air quality and traffic flow, and the full breadth of existing
and future Central City activities.
Several policies and sub-policies of the Central City Plan influence the
CCTMP. The major policies that impact transportation in the Central City
"Policy 1: Economic Development
Build upon the Central City as the economic heart of the Columbia Basin,
and guide its growth to further the City's prosperity and livability.
Policy 3: Housing
Maintain the Central City's status as Oregon's principal high density
housing area by keeping housing production in pace with new job creations.
Policy 4: Transportation
Improve the Central City's accessibility to the rest of the region and
its ability to accommodate growth, by extending the light rail system
and by maintaining and improving other forms of transit and the street
and highway system while preserving and enhancing the City's livability.
Policy 12: Urban Design
Enhance the Central City as a livable, walkable area which focuses on
the river and captures the glitter and excitement of city living."
The Central City Plan established the need to examine parking and circulation
in the Central City in a comprehensive manner. The CCTMP is intended to
address this need.
Issues addressed in the CCTMP are not just confined to the Central City.
Air quality, traffic congestion, and livability are issues that affect
the region as well as the Central City. The region's population has increased
significantly during the past few years and will continue to grow. The
Central City is expected to exceed current projections for jobs and housing
as it absorbs its share of this growth. Implementation of the CCTMP is
essential if this growth is to be accommodated.
ORGANIZATION OF THE CCTMP
The CCTMP is divided into several sections. Besides the "Introduction
and "Planning Process" sections which describe the CCTMP and
how it fits into other planning efforts for the City, the CCTMP contains
a "Transportation Goal" a number of "Policies and Objectives,"
"District Strategies," descriptions of street classifications
(some of which are unique to the Central City), a set of street classification
maps, an "Administration" section, a "Glossary," and
several other appendices.
Goal, Policies, and Objectives
The Transportation Goal, Policies, and Objectives are adopted by ordinance
by City Council and become part of the Transportation Element of the Comprehensive
Plan. The Transportation Element was adopted by the City in 1992 to replace
Goal 6 of the Comprehensive Plan and the Arterial Streets Classification
Policy and is the adopted Transportation Policy for the entire City.
The Policies are grouped around several subjects, such as air quality,
parking, transit, pedestrians, and bicycles. Each policy may have several
sub-policies and objectives. Explanations follow many of the policies
and objectives to provide further information about the history or derivation
of the policy and how it is implemented through zoning regulations.
Most of the policies and objectives apply throughout the Central City,
but some are specific to certain districts or sectors. The district lines
were established as part of the Central City Plan. The sectors were originally
used in the DPCP to separate differing maximum parking ratios. This concept
now applies throughout the Central City. Map 2 shows the district and
sector boundaries. A group of sectors comprise the "Core." Several
policies differentiate between the "Core" and "Outside
the Core." These two areas are also shown on Map 2.
The policies will be used to guide future improvements to the transportation
system, such as pedestrian or bicycle facilities, in the Central City.
The Goal for the CCTMP applies throughout the Central City, while some
of the policies and objectives apply to specific districts or sectors
Some portions of the Policies section cannot go into effect until EPA
approval because they would conflict with the portions of the DPCP that
are being retained in the interim (see the discussion of interim sections
in the Administration and Zoning Regulations in the paragraphs below).
These policies are shown in a box. Some policies were previously adopted
as part of the Transportation Element and are shaded.
Three of the eight districts in the Central City were the subject
of special planning efforts as part of the CCTMP. Committees were formed
to discuss these issues and suggest strategies. The committees are the
Lloyd District Task Force, the Central Eastside
CORE AREA AND PARKING SECTORS MAP
District Working Group, and the Downtown District Planning Forum. Each
group produced a report which is summarized in the District Strategies
section of the CCTMP. Other districts, such as River District and North
Macadam, are being looked at as a part of other planning projects. District
strategies and actions will be adopted by City Council resolution to provide
direction for implementation over the life of the plan.
The appendices include policies and actions adopted for specific districts
through other planning efforts already completed. The new district strategies
and actions of the CCTMP are intended to augment, not necessarily replace,
previously adopted policies and actions.
Action Items follow the Policies and the District Strategies. The
actions represent a list of opportunities for carrying out the policies
and strategies of the CCTMP. The actions will be adopted by City Council
resolution. The actions were recommended by many sourcessome were
part of technical studies that were done in a previous phase of the CCTMP,
some come from the District Reports, and some come from the work of the
technical and citizens advisory committees. The reports are listed in
an appendix of the CCTMP.
Some of the actions are very specific to a given district; for example,
"Improve NE Grand/MLK, Jr. pedestrian crossings near the Oregon Convention
Center," and some are
more general; for example, "Prepare a program to ensure safe pedestrian
routes to schools." Not all of the actions will be acted upon, but
neither will they be ignored. The actions should not be considered as
a list of projects that will all be funded, rather they are suggestions
for how the Central City can be improved to meet the adopted policies
and they will be subject to discussion before being implemented.
Street Classifications and Descriptions
The Street Classifications section classifies the Central City's streets
based on their optimal functioning. These classifications dictate what
types of automobile, truck, transit, bicycle, and pedestrian use should
be emphasized on each street and how future street improvements and public
and private development relate to those functions.
The Street Descriptions duplicate, for the most part, the Street Descriptions
in the Transportation Element, but some new descriptions are added to
address the unique way in which Central City streets are intended to function.
For instance, there is a much higher level of transit service in the Central
City, and ensuring that it continues to function efficiently is very important.
Therefore, two new transit classifications were developed; the Major Transit
Priority Street and the Transit Access Street.
Both the Classification Descriptions and Classification Maps are adopted
by ordinance by the City.
The Administration Section is a separate document which gives guidance
on how the Office of Transportation shall implement the CCTMP parking
policies, as well as specific responsibilities for the management of parking
inventories and reserves.
Zoning Code Amendments
The Zoning Code contains the regulations which govern parking in the
Central City. The majority of the parking regulations are in the Central
City plan district chapter of the Zoning Code. These provisions will be
amended to implement the policies of the CCTMP. The amendments to the
Zoning Code will be adopted by ordinance.
The Zoning Code amendments will be developed and reviewed following adoption
of the policies of the CCTMP.
Introduction # CCTMP Plan & Policy
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